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pronunciation    : [pron,ʌnsi'eʃən] [prən,ʌnsi'eʃən]
Pronunciation \Pro*nun`ci*a"tion\ (?; 277), n. [F.
pronunciation, L. pronunciatio. See {Pronounce}.]
[1913 Webster]
1. The act of uttering with articulation; the act of giving
the proper sound and accent; utterance; as, the
pronunciation of syllables of words; distinct or
indistinct pronunciation.
[1913 Webster]

2. The mode of uttering words or sentences.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Rhet.) The art of manner of uttering a discourse publicly
with propriety and gracefulness; -- now called {delivery}.
--J. Q. Adams.
[1913 Webster]

pronunciation
n 1: the manner in which someone utters a word; "they are always
correcting my pronunciation"
2: the way a word or a language is customarily spoken; "the
pronunciation of Chinese is difficult for foreigners"; "that
is the correct pronunciation" [synonym: {pronunciation},
{orthoepy}]

In this dictionary slashes (/../) bracket phonetic
pronunciations of words not found in a standard English
dictionary. The notation, and many of the pronunciations,
were adapted from the Hacker's {Jargon File}.

Syllables are separated by {dash} or followed {single quote}
or {back quote}. Single quote means the preceding syllable is
stressed (louder), back quote follows a syllable with
intermediate stress (slightly louder), otherwise all syllables
are equally stressed.

Consonants are pronounced as in English but note:

ch soft, as in "church"
g hard, as in "got"
gh aspirated gh of "bughouse" or "ragheap"
j voiced, as in "judge"
kh guttural of "loch" or "l'chaim"
s unvoiced, as in "pass"
zh as "s" in "pleasure"

Uppercase letters are pronounced as their English letter
names; thus (for example) /H-L-L/ is equivalent to /aych el
el/. /Z/ is pronounced /zee/ in the US and /zed/ in the UK
(elsewhere?).

Vowels are represented as follows:

a back, that
ah father, palm (see note)
ar far, mark
aw flaw, caught
ay bake, rain
e less, men
ee easy, ski
eir their, software
i trip, hit
i: life, sky
o block, stock (see note)
oh flow, sew
oo loot, through
or more, door
ow out, how
oy boy, coin
uh but, some
u put, foot
*r fur, insert (only in stressed
syllables; otherwise use just "r")
y yet, young
yoo few, chew
[y]oo /oo/ with optional fronting as
in `news' (/nooz/ or /nyooz/)

A /*/ is used for the `schwa' sound of unstressed or occluded
vowels (often written with an upside-down `e'). The schwa
vowel is omitted in unstressed syllables containing vocalic l,
m, n or r; that is, "kitten" and "colour" would be rendered
/kit'n/ and /kuhl'r/, not /kit'*n/ and /kuhl'*r/.

The above table reflects mainly distinctions found in standard
American English (that is, the neutral dialect spoken by TV
network announcers and typical of educated speech in the Upper
Midwest, Chicago, Minneapolis/St.Paul and Philadelphia).
However, we separate /o/ from /ah/, which tend to merge in
standard American. This may help readers accustomed to
accents resembling British Received Pronunciation.

Entries with a pronunciation of `//' are written-only.

(1997-12-10)




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English Dictionary  2005-2009

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