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type    : [t'ɑɪp]
-type \-type\ [See {Type}, n.]
A combining form signifying impressed form; stamp; print;
type; typical form; representative; as in stereotype
phototype, ferrotype, monotype.
[1913 Webster]

Type \Type\ (t[imac]p), n. [F. type; cf. It. tipo, from L. typus
a figure, image, a form, type, character, Gr. ty`pos the mark
of a blow, impression, form of character, model, from the
root of ty`ptein to beat, strike; cf. Skr. tup to hurt.]
1. The mark or impression of something; stamp; impressed
sign; emblem.
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The faith they have in tennis, and tall stockings,
Short blistered breeches, and those types of travel.
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2. Form or character impressed; style; semblance.
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Thy father bears the type of king of Naples. --Shak.
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3. A figure or representation of something to come; a token;
a sign; a symbol; -- correlative to antitype.
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A type is no longer a type when the thing typified
comes to be actually exhibited. --South.
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4. That which possesses or exemplifies characteristic
qualities; the representative. Specifically:
(a) (Biol.) A general form or structure common to a number
of individuals; hence, the ideal representation of a
species, genus, or other group, combining the
essential characteristics; an animal or plant
possessing or exemplifying the essential
characteristics of a species, genus, or other group.
Also, a group or division of animals having a certain
typical or characteristic structure of body maintained
within the group.
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Since the time of Cuvier and Baer . . . the
whole animal kingdom has been universally held
to be divisible into a small number of main
divisions or types. --Haeckel.
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(b) (Fine Arts) The original object, or class of objects,
scene, face, or conception, which becomes the subject
of a copy; esp., the design on the face of a medal or
a coin.
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(c) (Chem.) A simple compound, used as a model or pattern
to which other compounds are conveniently regarded as
being related, and from which they may be actually or
theoretically derived.
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Note: The fundamental types used to express the simplest and
most essential chemical relations are hydrochloric
acid, {HCl}; water, {H2O}; ammonia, {NH3}; and methane,
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5. (Typog.)
(a) A raised letter, figure, accent, or other character,
cast in metal or cut in wood, used in printing.
(b) Such letters or characters, in general, or the whole
quantity of them used in printing, spoken of
collectively; any number or mass of such letters or
characters, however disposed.
[1913 Webster]

Note: Type are mostly made by casting type metal in a mold,
though some of the larger sizes are made from maple,
mahogany, or boxwood. In the cut, a is the body; b, the
face, or part from which the impression is taken; c,
the shoulder, or top of the body; d, the nick
(sometimes two or more are made), designed to assist
the compositor in distinguishing the bottom of the face
from t`e top; e, the groove made in the process of
finishing, -- each type as cast having attached to the
bottom of the body a jet, or small piece of metal
(formed by the surplus metal poured into the mold),
which, when broken off, leaves a roughness that
requires to be removed. The fine lines at the top and
bottom of a letter are technically called ceriphs, and
when part of the face projects over the body, as in the
letter f, the projection is called a kern.
[1913 Webster] The type which compose an ordinary book
font consist of Roman CAPITALS, small capitals, and
lower-case letters, and Italic CAPITALS and lower-case
letters, with accompanying figures, points, and
reference marks, -- in all about two hundred
characters. Including the various modern styles of
fancy type, some three or four hundred varieties of
face are made. Besides the ordinary Roman and Italic,
some of the most important of the varieties are
[1913 Webster] Old English. Black Letter. Old Style.
French Elzevir. Boldface. Antique. Clarendon. Gothic.
Typewriter. Script.
[1913 Webster] The smallest body in common use is
diamond; then follow in order of size, pearl, agate,
nonpareil, minion, brevier, bourgeois (or two-line
diamond), long primer (or two-line pearl), small pica
(or two-line agate), pica (or two-line nonpareil),
English (or two-line minion), Columbian (or two-line
brevier), great primer (or two-line bourgeois), paragon
(or two-line long primer), double small pica (or
two-line small pica), double pica (or two-line pica),
double English (or two-line English), double great
primer (or two-line great primer), double paragon (or
two-line paragon), canon (or two-line double pica).
Above this, the sizes are called five-line pica,
six-line pica, seven-line pica, and so on, being made
mostly of wood. The following alphabets show the
different sizes up to great primer.
[1913 Webster] Brilliant . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
Diamond . . abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pearl . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Agate . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Nonpareil . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Minion . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Brevier . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Bourgeois . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Long primer . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Small pica . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Pica . . . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz English . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Columbian . . .
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz Great primer . . .
[1913 Webster] The foregoing account is conformed to
the designations made use of by American type founders,
but is substantially correct for England. Agate,
however, is called ruby, in England, where, also, a
size intermediate between nonpareil and minion is
employed, called emerald.
[1913 Webster]

{Point system of type bodies} (Type Founding), a system
adopted by the type founders of the United States by which
the various sizes of type have been so modified and
changed that each size bears an exact proportional
relation to every other size. The system is a modification
of a French system, and is based on the pica body. This
pica body is divided into twelfths, which are termed
"points," and every type body consist of a given number of
these points. Many of the type founders indicate the new
sizes of type by the number of points, and the old names
are gradually being done away with. By the point system
type founders cast type of a uniform size and height,
whereas formerly fonts of pica or other type made by
different founders would often vary slightly so that they
could not be used together. There are no type in actual
use corresponding to the smaller theoretical sizes of the
point system. In some cases, as in that of ruby, the term
used designates a different size from that heretofore so
[1913 Webster] 1 American 9 Bourgeois [bar] [bar] 11/2
German [bar] 2 Saxon 10 Long Primer [bar] [bar] 21/2 Norse
[bar] 3 Brilliant 11 Small Pica [bar] [bar] 31/2 Ruby 12
Pica [bar] [bar] 4 Excelsior [bar] 41/2 Diamond 14 English
[bar] [bar] 5 Pearl 16 Columbian [bar] [bar] 51/2 Agate
[bar] 6 Nonpareil 18 Great Primer [bar] [bar] 7 Minion
[bar] 8 Brevier 20 Paragon [bar] [bar] Diagram of the
"points" by which sizes of Type are graduated in the
"Point System".
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{Type founder}, one who casts or manufacture type.

{Type foundry}, {Type foundery}, a place for the manufacture
of type.

{Type metal}, an alloy used in making type, stereotype
plates, etc., and in backing up electrotype plates. It
consists essentially of lead and antimony, often with a
little tin, nickel, or copper.

{Type wheel}, a wheel having raised letters or characters on
its periphery, and used in typewriters, printing
telegraphs, etc.

{Unity of type} (Biol.), that fundamental agreement in
structure which is seen in organic beings of the same
class, and is quite independent of their habits of life.
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Type \Type\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Typed}; p. pr. & vb. n.
1. To represent by a type, model, or symbol beforehand; to
prefigure. [R.] --White (Johnson).
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2. To furnish an expression or copy of; to represent; to
typify. [R.]
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Let us type them now in our own lives. --Tennyson.
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n 1: a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; "what type of
sculpture do you prefer?" [ant: {antitype}]
2: a person of a specified kind (usually with many
eccentricities); "a real character"; "a strange character";
"a friendly eccentric"; "the capable type"; "a mental case"
[synonym: {character}, {eccentric}, {type}, {case}]
3: (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used
to define the next higher taxon
4: printed characters; "small type is hard to read"
5: all of the tokens of the same symbol; "the word `element'
contains five different types of character"
6: a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end;
produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper;
"he dropped a case of type, so they made him pick them up"
v 1: write by means of a keyboard with types; "type the
acceptance letter, please" [synonym: {type}, {typewrite}]
2: identify as belonging to a certain type; "Such people can
practically be typed" [synonym: {type}, {typecast}]

407 Moby Thesaurus words for "type":
Platonic form, Platonic idea, adumbration, aesthetic form,
affinity, alien, allegory, alphabetize, analyze, animus, antetype,
antitype, aptitude, archetype, area, arrange, art form, ascender,
assort, augury, auspice, back, bag, barometer, bastard type, beard,
belly, bent, betokening, betokenment, bevel, bias, biotype,
black letter, blazon, blood, body, body-build, brand, break down,
breed, build, canon, cap, capital, case, case in point, cast,
catalog, categorize, category, character, characteristic,
characteristics, charactery, check, chosen kind, cipher, clan,
class, classic example, classification, classify, codify, color,
complexion, composition, configuration, conformation, constituents,
constitution, conventional symbol, copy, copy out, counter,
crackpot, crank, crasis, criterion, cross section, cup of tea, cut,
degree, demonstration, denomination, descender, description,
designation, dharma, diathesis, digest, disposition, divide, draft,
draw up, druthers, eccentric, eccentricity, edit, em, emblem,
embodiment, en, enface, engross, epitome, ethos, example, exemplar,
exemplification, explanation, exponent, face, fanatic, fancy,
fashion, fat-faced type, favor, feather, feet, fiber, field,
figuration, figure, file, font, foreshadow, foreshadowing,
foreshowing, foretoken, foretokening, form, format, formation,
forte, fount, frame, fugleman, fugler, gauge, genius, genotype,
genre, genus, glosseme, grade, graduated scale, grain, groove,
group, habit, hermit, hobo, hue, humor, humors, icon, iconology,
ideogram, idiosyncrasy, ilk, illustration, imitatee, impression,
inclination, index, indicant, indication, individualism,
inner form, inscribe, instance, italic, keyboard, kidney, kin,
kind, kook, label, layout, lead, leaning, letter, lexeme,
lexical form, ligature, line, list, logogram, logotype, lone wolf,
loner, long suit, lot, love knot, lower case, main interest,
majuscule, make, make a recension, make out, makeup, manner, mark,
matrix, maverick, measure, mental set, meshuggenah, metier, mettle,
mind, mind-set, minuscule, mirror, modality, mode, model, mold,
morpheme, natural, nature, nick, nonconformist, norm, number, nut,
object lesson, odd fellow, oddball, oddity, omen, order, original,
outsider, paradigm, parameter, pariah, partiality,
particular choice, pattern, pen, pencil, personal choice,
personification, persuasion, pet subject, phrase, phylum, physique,
pi, pica, pictogram, pigeonhole, place, point, portent, precedent,
predilection, predisposition, preference, prefiguration,
preindication, prejudice, premonitory shiver, premonitory sign,
premonitory symptom, prepossession, presignifying, print,
proclivity, prognostic, prognostication, promise, propensity,
property, prototype, pursuit, push the pen, put in writing,
quality, quantity, queer duck, queer fish, queer specimen,
quintessence, race, range, rank, rara avis, rate, reading, readout,
recense, record, relevant instance, representation, representative,
revise, rewrite, roman, rubric, rule, sample, sans serif, scale,
screwball, scribe, script, scrive, scroll, semasiological unit,
sememe, set, shadow, shank, shape, shoulder, sign, signifiant,
significant, significant form, slant, small cap, small capital,
solitary, somatotype, soothsay, sort, specialism, speciality,
specialization, specialty, species, specimen, spill ink, spirit,
spoil paper, stamp, standard, stem, strain, streak, stripe,
strong point, structure, style, subdivide, suchness, superscribe,
symbol, symbolic system, symbolism, symbolization, symbology,
system, tabulate, taste, technicality, temper, temperament,
tendency, tenor, term, test, the like of, the likes of, thing,
token, tokening, tone, totem, totem pole, touchstone, trace, tramp,
transcribe, tribe, turn, turn of mind, twist, type body,
type class, type lice, type species, type specimen, typecase,
typeface, typefounders, typefoundry, typical example, typification,
upper case, urtext, value, variety, vein, vocation, warp, way,
weakness, word, write, write down, write out, yardstick, zealot

(Or "data type") A set of values from
which a {variable}, {constant}, {function}, or other
{expression} may take its value. A type is a classification
of data that tells the {compiler} or {interpreter} how the
programmer intends to use it. For example, the process and
result of adding two variables differs greatly according to
whether they are integers, floating point numbers, or strings.

Types supported by most programming languages include
{integers} (usually limited to some range so they will fit in
one {word} of storage), {Booleans}, {floating point numbers},
and characters. {Strings} are also common, and are
represented as {lists} of characters in some languages.

If s and t are types, then so is s -> t, the type of
{functions} from s to t; that is, give them a term of type s,
functions of type s -> t will return a term of type t.

Some types are {primitive} - built-in to the language, with no
visible internal structure - e.g. Boolean; others are
composite - constructed from one or more other types (of
either kind) - e.g. {lists}, {arrays}, {structures}, {unions}.
{Object-oriented programming} extends this with {classes}
which encapsulate both the structure of a type and the
operations that can be performed on it.

Some languages provide {strong typing}, others allow {implicit
type conversion} and/or {explicit type conversion}.


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English Dictionary  2005-2009

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